Monthly Archives: May 2017


Consider a scalar field in dimensions with the standard decomposition into creation and annihilation operators, Then the commutation relations between the creation/annihilation operators, where , imply exact commutativity of spacelike separated fields: where the last step follows from the fact … Continue reading

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A brief history of firewalls

Black hole thermodynamics In 1973, Jacob Bekenstein observed that black holes must be endowed with an entropy in order to preserve the second law of thermodynamics; otherwise, one could decrease the entropy of the universe by simply throwing subsystems with … Continue reading

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